A/Professor Shanton Chang

B.Commerce (Hon) (UWA), PhD (Monash),

GCUT (UniMelb)


Assistant Dean (International)
School of Computing and Information Systems

Melbourne School of Engineering

University of Melbourne

Victoria 3010, Australia
Phone: +61 3 8344 1583
Fax: +61 3 9349 4596

Research Interests:

I have three main streams of research with multiple projects. They are;

Online Behaviour and Information Needs in Society
People today ‘live’ much of their life surrounded by technology and social media. Most of them spend what seem to be inordinate hours online. Yet our understanding of online behaviour is only starting to take shape. This is not surprising as technology, online content and applications are shifting at a phenomenal speed. Hence, I am interested in studying areas related to people's online behaviour and how it may impact on education, mental well-being and also their patterns of social networking. I also look at the Digital Journeys of people who move across cultures, exploring the ways in which online behaviours may or may not change when the physical environment changes.

Participatory and Community Health and the Digital Environment
In the digital age, citizens are using online resources to access health information and manage their own wellbeing. With more than 97,000 health apps in the world (most of which are untested or verified), the focus has shifted to the users, that is the patients, the informal carers, professional carers and the wider community through looking at access to relevant information when it is needed. Hence, the study of other user centred systems is important for the future of this field.

Information Systems Security Culture and Management
Information systems security refers to more that the prevention of hacking. It is generally recognised that security can have direct impacts on the organisation's performance, its people, data, technology and assets. Hence, an integrated strategic approach to managing IS security is needed and this can only be done when embedded in management practice.

I tend to do interdisciplinary work, collaborating with external partners. I also have other research interests in the Teaching and Learning across Cultures and Cultural Competencies.

Research Supervision:

I have supervised numerous research students to successful completion to date (including 9 Phd completions) in the three major areas listed. If you are interested in postgraduate research related to the above areas, please contact me for a chat. However, please note my areas of research and specific methodologies. I tend not to supervise students in highly technical and experimental areas. I do not supervise students in computer science and software development. Previous and current students:


  • Online Behaviour and Information Needs in Society
    Honours and Masters (completed)
    • Chloe Zhou, The relationship between culture and technology appropriation
    • Sandra Ahn, Family decision making process in the take up of broadband technology in Australia (with Lee Hee Jin)
    • Njoroge Muito, The Impact of Broadband in High Schools (with Lee Hee Jin)
    • Eleanor Yeo, Motivations behind Blogging Behaviour amongst Young Australians and Singaporeans
    • Con Rigopoulos, Students' Perception of Online Discussion Boards for Educational Purposes
    • Genevieve Yip, Information Disclosure Amongst Extensive Internet Users (with Atif Afmad)
    • Dip Nandi (Masters), Evaluating quality in online asynchronous interactions on online discussion forums between students and students’ facilitators (with Sandrine Balbo)
    • Leila Esfahani (Masters), Information Seeking Behaviour of International Students
    • Haifa Binsahl (Masters), Adoption of Social Networking by Saudi International Female Student (with Sherah Kurnia and Katie Richardson)
    • Xu Lige (Masters), Crowd Powered Search – Exploring the Information Offering in Human Flesh Search on Weibo Platform
    • Miranti Daniar (Masters), Building School-Based Digital Literacy in Developing Countries: An Activity Theory Perspective (with Jenny Waycott)
    • Hetty Templeton (Masters), Online Behaviour Changes: An Exploratory Study of Chinese Citizens in Australia
    • Jackie Claff (Masters), Learner Continuance in Non-formal Self-regulated Autonomous Mobile Assisted Language Leaning (with Jenny Waycott)


    • Imran Sha'ari (graduated 2010), Information Needs of Virtual Teams (with Graeme Shanks)
    • Leo Lei Weizhen (graduated 2011), Self-initiated Digital Transition of Rural-Urban Migrants in Beijing (with Lee Heejin and Martin Gibbs)
    • Suraya Hamid (graduated in 2013), Social Networking in Higher Education (with Sherah Kurnia and Jenny Waycott)
    • Dana McKay, Browsing Information Online (with Wally Smith)
    • Haifa Binsahl, Social Media and International Saudi Female Students (with Rachelle Bosua)
    • Kayla Heffernan, The Wrist as a Platform: Wearables and Insertables (with Frank Vetere)
    • Andrew McAlindon, Leading a Learning Community (with Lynda Ball)

  • Participatory and Community Health and the Digital Environment

    Honours and Masters (completed)

    • Kayla Heffernan (Masters), Developing eHealth Apps for Complex Messaging: Leveraging the Safe-D Case Study (with John Wark)
    • Saeidd Derakshan (Masters), Enhancing GPs' Participation in a Virtual Community of Practice for
      Continuing Medical Education


    • Bazil Alzougool (graduated 2010), Modelling Information Needs of Informal Carers (with Kathleen Gray)
    • Fan Hanmei (graduated 2013), Information Adoption in Online Health Communities (with Reeva Lederman and Stephen Smith)
    • Patrick Pang (graduated 2016) Understanding Exploratory Search in Seeking Health Information (with Karin Verspoor and Jon Pearce)
    • Timoci O'Connor, ICT Supported Feedback System in Community Based Programs (with Janet Clinton)
    • Abdulaziz Murad, Online Communities of Practice for Clinicians (with Reeva Lederman, Rachelle Bosua and John Wark)


  • Information Systems Security Culture and Management

    Honours and Masters (completed)

    • Meera Kesari, The Usefulness of Process Modelling Tools (with Peter Seddon)
    • Justin Shuen, Critical Success and Failure Factors in Outsourcing of IT (with Peter Seddon)
    • Dixon Poon, Adopting Broadband Technology: The (limited) benefits for SMEs (with Lee Hee Jin)
    • Daniel Barkho, Rural Access to Broadband
    • Lim Beng Yao, Information Security Policy Enforcement in Organizations (with Sean Maynard)
    • Eleanor Yeo, Motivations behind Blogging Behaviour amongst Young Australians and Singaporeans
    • Genevieve Yip, Information Disclosure Amongst Extensive Internet Users (with Atif Afmad)
    • Chris Poynton, Influence of Organisational Culture on Protection of Online Identity from Theft (with Rachelle Bosua)
    • Ashley Wong, Information Security Policy Implementation (with Sean Maynard and Atif Ahmad)
    • Damien Chan, Success Factors in Outsourcing IT Security (with Atif Ahmad and Sean Maynard)


    • Michael Lim (graduated 2012), The Relationship between Organisational Culture and Information Security Culture (with Sean Maynard)
    • Nurul Nuha Abdul Molok (graduated in 2013), Information Leakage and Social Networking (with Atif Ahmad)
    • Glenn Mail, (graduated 2015), ICT for Development in Indonesia (with Sherah Kurnia)
    • Diana Wong, Enterprise 2.0 Capabilities (with Rachell Bosua and Sherah Kurnia)
    • Moneer Alshaikh, Information Security Culture (with Atif Ahmad and Sean Maynard)

Sample Recent Refereed Publications:

Education, Social Networking and ICT Adoption

  • Hamid, S., Waycott, J., Kurnia, S. and Chang, S.(2015) 'Understanding students' perceptions of the benefits of online social networking use for teaching and learning', The Internet and Higher Education,26,1-9
  • Binsahl, H, Chang, S. and Bosua, R. (2015), 'Identity and belonging: Saudi female international students and their use of social networking sites', Crossings: Journal of Migration & Culture 6 (1), 81-102
  • Gomes, C. Berry, M. Alzougool, B. and Chang, S. (2014), 'Home away from home: International students and their identity-based social networks in Australia', Journal of International Students, 4(1): 2-15
  • Chang, S, Alzougool, B, Berry, M and Gomes, C and Reeders, D. (2012) International Students in the Digital Age: Do you know where your students go to for information? Australian International Education Conference (AIEC), 2-5 October 2012, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Chang, S, Alzougool, B, Gomes, C, Berry, M, Smith, S and Reeders, D. (2012) Communicating with International Students: How do their social networks impact on where they go to for information? ISANA International Academy Association Conference, 4-7 December 2012, Auckland, New Zealand.
  • Nandi, D., Hamilton, M., Chang, S. & Balbo, S., (2012). Evaluating quality in online asynchronous interactions between students and discussion facilitators. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology . 28(4) : 9
  • Gray K., Chang S. & Kennedy G. (2010), Use of social web technologies by international and domestic undergraduate students: implications for internationalising learning and teaching in Australian universities. Technology, Pedagogy and Education. 19(1):31-46.
  • Arkoudis SA, Yu XY, Baik CWB, Chang SLC, Lang IWL, Lang J, Pearce A & Watty KW. (2010). Finding Common Ground: enhancing interaction between domestic and international students. Guide for academics. Report No , for Australian Learning & Teaching Council. Sydney, Australia: Australian Learning and Teaching Research Council: Studio Teaching Project.
  • Chang, S (2007), Academic perceptions of the use of Lectopia: A University of Melbourne example, ASCILITE 2007, Singapore.


Participatory and Community Health and the Digital Environment

  • Heffernan KJ, Chang S, Maclean ST, Callegari ET, Garland SM, Reavley NJ, Varigos GA, Wark JD. (2016). Guidelines and Recommendations for Developing Interactive eHealth Apps for Complex Messaging in Health Promotion, JMIR mHealth uHealth 2016;4(1):e14
  • Alzougool BM, Chang SL & Gray KM. (2015). A New Scale to Measure the State of An Informal Carer’s Information Needs: Development and Validation, Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet, 19(3-4).
  • Pang, PCI., Verspoor, K., Pearce, J. & Chang. S. (2015). Better Health Explorer: Designing for Health Information Seekers. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Australian Special Interest Group for Computer Human Interaction (OzCHI '15), Bernd Ploderer, Marcus Carter, Martin Gibbs, Wally Smith, and Frank Vetere (Eds.). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 588-597.
  • Pang, PCI., Verspoor, K., Chang, S. and Pearce, J. (2015) 'Conceptualising health information seeking behaviours and exploratory search: result of a qualitative study', Health and Technology, 1-11
  • Heffernan, KJ., Chang, S., Maclean, ST., Callegari, ET., Garland, SM., Reavley, N., Varigos, G. and Wark, JD. (2014) 'The potential of eHealth Apps to Support Targeted Complex Health Messages', Journal of General Practice, 2:5
  • H Fan H, Lederman R, Smith SP, Chang S, (2014) How Trust is Formed in Online Health Communities: A Process Perspective, Communications of the Association for Information Systems 34 (1), 28
  • Alzougool BM, Chang SL & Gray KM. (2013) The nature and constitution of informal carers' information needs: what you don't know you need is as important as what you want to know. Information Research: an international electronic journal. 18 (1).
  • Pedrana A, Hellard ME, Gold J, Ata N, Chang SL, Howard S, Asselin J, Ilic O, Batrouney C & Stoove M. (2013) Queer as F**k: Reaching and Engaging Gay Men in Sexual Health Promotion through Social Networking Sites. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 15 (2)
  • Nguyen P, Gold J, Pedrana A, Chang SL, Howard S, Ilic O, Hellard ME & Stoove M. (2013) Sexual Health Promotion on Social Networking Sites: A Process Evaluation of the FaceSpace Project. Journal of Adolescent Health
  • Gold J, Pedrana A, Stoove M, Chang S, Howard S, Asselin J, Ilic O, Batrouney C & Hellard ME. (2012). Developing Health Promotion Interventions on Social Networking Sites. Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR). 14 (1) :  e30.
  • Pearce, J. M., Chang, S., Alzougool, B., Kennedy, G., Ainley, M., & Rodrigues, S. (2011). Search or Explore: Do you know what you’re looking for? Proceedings from 2011 Australasian Computer Human Interaction Conference, OzCHI 2011, Canberra.


Information Systems Security Culture and Management

  • Alshaikh, M., Ahmad, A., Maynard, SB., Chang, S. (2014) 'Towards a Taxonomy of Information Security Management Practices in Organisations' 25th Australasian Conference on Information Systems.
  • Lim J, Chang SL, Ahmad A & Maynard SB. (2012). Towards an Organizational Culture Framework for Information Security Practices. In Gupta M, Walp J & Sharman R (eds), Strategic and Practical Approaches for Information Security Governance: Technologies and Applied Solutions. Hershey, United States: Information Science Publishing , pp. 296-315.
  • Abdul Molok N, Ahmad AA & Chang SLC. (2011). Exploring the use of online social networking among employees: Looking at the potential for information leakage.  15th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems. New York, United States: AISel.
  • Abdul Molok N, Ahmad A & Chang S. (2010). Understanding the Factors of Information Leakage through Online Social Networking to Safeguard Organizational Information.  21st Australasian Conference on Information Systems.   11-11. Texas, United States: Association for Information Systems.
  • Abdul Molok N, Chang SLC & Ahmad AA. (2010). Information Leakage through Online Social Networking: Opening the Doorway for Advanced Persistence Threats.  The Proceedings of the 8th Australian Information Security Management Conference.   76-88. Churchlands, Australia: Edith Cowan University.
  • Lim J, Ahmad AA, Chang SLC & Maynard SBM. (2010). Embedding Information Security Culture Emerging Concerns and Challenges.  PACIS 2010.   463-474. Taipei, Taiwan: National Taiwan University.
  • Ruighaver, A.B., Maynard, S.B. and Chang, S. (2007), Organisational security culture: Extending the end-user perspective, Computers & Security, 26(1): 56-62.
  • Chang and Tharenou (2004) Competencies needed for managing a multicultural workgroup, Asia-Pacific Journal of Human Resources.


ICT and Broadband Adoption

  • Maail A, Kurnia S & Chang S. (2010). A Framework for Exploring Conditional Factors Affecting User Participation in Information Systems Development.  ACIS 2010 Proceedings.   . Texas, United States: Association for Information Systems.
  • Middleton, C. and Chang, S. (2008), The Adoption of Broadband Internet in Australia and Canada , in Dwiverdi, Y. (ed) Handbook of Research on Global Diffusion of Broadband Data Transmission , UK : IDEA GROUP.
  • Poon, D. and Chang, S. (2005) Appropriation of broadband in SMEs: lessons from research on the adoption of ICTs, ITS Regional Conference 2005
  • Chang, S, Ahn, S, & Lee, H (2006) The Family Purchasing Process of Broadband Internet in Australia , International Journal of Technology Marketing, 1 (3): 285-300.

Awards Received :

Australian Learning and Teaching Council Citation for Outstanding Contribution to Student Learning (2011)

University of Melbourne Citation for Outstanding Contribution in Building Cultural Awareness (2011)

IEAA Award for Best Innovation in International Education for Finding Common Ground Project (2011)

Vice-Chancellor's Engagement Award (2010)

Universitas 21 Fellowship (2009)

ISANA International Education Association Award for Service to the Profession (2008)

Faculty of Science Excellence in Teaching (2006)

Department of Information Systems Excellence in Teaching (2004, 2006, 2008)

IDP Award for Outstanding Contribution to International Education in Australia (2000)


Sample Grants Received :

With Wark, Pirotta, Garland, Howard, Reavley, Varigos et al (2013), Improving vitamin D status and health in young women ($587,812)


Universities Australia and Australian Education International (AEI)

With Alzougool, Gomes, Berry and Reeders (2012) Mapping The Social Networks of International Students: Foundations for Improving Communication ($24,542)


Australian Learning and Teaching Grants (ALTC)
With Arkoudis et al (2008) Finding Common Ground: enhancing interaction between domestic and international students. ($215,000) IEAA Awardee for Best Innovation in International Education (2011)

With Smith et al (2011) New tools and techniques for learning in the field: studying the built environment ($212,000)

Institute of Broadband Enabled Society Grants
With Ainley et al (2010) Youth mental health and wellbeing online ($88,000 for 4 sub-projects)
With Pearce et al (2010) Connecting learners for collaboration across diverse communities ($70,000 for 3 sub-projects)

Australian Research Council
With Burns (Inspire Foundation) et al (2011) CRC: Young People, Technology and Wellbeing ($27M)

Teaching and Learning Grants (University of Melbourne)
Cultural Analysis of Exchange Studies, 2011(with Constantinidis) ($6000)

Connecting Across Barriers of Disability and Transition Knowledge Transfer, 2010 (with Ainley) ($9000)

Academic Reflections for First Year Science Students, 2010 (with Gleeson et al) ($9000)
Experience of Mixed Cohorts of Masters by Coursework Students, 2010 (with Smith et al) ($39000)
Teachout Transition for BIS students, 2010 ($7000)

Intercultural effectiveness Subject Development, 2009 (with Ransom and Stone) ($20000)



Current Subjects:


Other Areas of Interest:

I am also responsible for the training and professional development of sessional staff members in the department in the areas of teaching and tutoring. Specifically, I am interested in the following:


  • Transition Issues for First Year Students
  • Learning and Teaching Styles
  • Teaching in a Multicultural Environment
  • Monitoring of Student Progress and Outcomes for Students


Other Links:

Academic Skills Unit

ISANA International Education Association

Created: 22 May, 2001
Last modified: 15 February 2016
Maintained by: Shanton Chang