This is Peter G. Baines' Home Page

PGB - July 2004Dr. Peter George Baines

Current positions:

Senior Fellow, Dept. of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne, Australia 

Secretary, Royal Society of Victoria

Past President, International Commission for Dynamic Meteorology (ICDM) of the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS).

Associate Editor for Oceanography, Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal

Other distinctions:


Merle A.Tuve Senior Fellow, Carnegie Institute of Washington, USA, Sept.-Oct 2012


Visiting scientist, QUEST, Dept. of Earth Sciences, U.K., 2006-2009

Leverhulme Visiting Professor, School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, UK 2004-2005

Formerly Chief Research Scientist, CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Australia

Elected Fellow of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, 2004

AMOS Priestley Medallist, 1997

Fellow of the Royal Meteorological Society.

Former Councillor and Research Secretary, Royal Society of Victoria Inc., 8 LaTrobe St., Melbourne, Australia.

Former member of Committee for the Prince Albert I of Monaco Gold Medal of the International Association of the Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IAPSO).

Current address:

Department of Infrastructure Engineering
University of Melbourne
Melbourne VIC 3010


Phone : 61-3 8344 7548

fax: 61-3 8344 4616


Personal web site :


Copies of the paperback version are available from Cambridge University Press. For a description of this book, a list of reviews and how to purchase a copy, click here.   




This work is based on the examination of reanalysis and satellite-based rainfall data, coupled with dynamical interpretations. Efforts have previously been focused on the late 1960s climate shift that influenced (among many other places) southwest Western Australia. Present efforts are directed toward the effects on land-based rainfall of global dynamical factors that represent physical processes; these include ENSO and the IOD and nine others.


Work on a second edition of the above-mentioned book is nearing completion. Some recent scientific results are described in references 145 and 146.

3-degree slope, Holmboe instability: click here.

30-degree slope, double outflow: click here.


These include the dynamics of ash clouds from mega-volcanos including ash deposition, the generation of atmospheric waves by volcanic eruptions. Recent results are described in references 140, 142 , 147.


This involves the effects of flow through a contraction of eastward flow on a beta-plane on disturbances upstream (in an analogous manner to that in density-stratified flows), with application to flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current through the Drake Passage.



BAINES, P.G. Upstream influence in uniformly stratified flows over topography.

BAINES, P.G.  Rossby wave hydraulics:  upstream influence due to eastward flow through contractions on a beta-plane.

BAINES, P.G. and HENLEY, B. J.  Patterns of decadal climate variability and their impact on Australian and global rainfall.

SILVER, Z., DIMITROVA, R., ZSEDROVITS, T., BAINES, P.G. and FERNANDO, H.J.S.  Simulation of Stably Stratified Flow in Complex Terrain: Flow Structures and Dividing Streamline.




148.  BAINES P.G. and SACKS, S. 2017: The Generation and Propagation of Atmospheric Internal Waves Caused by Volcanic Eruptions. Atmosphere 2017 8, 60; doi:  10.3390/atmos8030060,  24 pp.

147. BAINES, P.G. and HUGHES, R.L. 2016: Comments on “The Interaction of an Eastward-Flowing Current and an Island: Sub- and Supercritical Flow”, Journal of Physical Oceanography 46, 2263-2265.

146. BAINES, P.G. and JOHNSON, E.R.   2016: Nonlinear topographic effects in two-layer flows.   Front. Earth Sci. 4:9. doi: 10.3389/feart.2016.00009.

145. BAINES, P.G. 2016 : Internal hydraulic jumps in two-layer systems. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 787, 1-15. 

144. BAINES, P.G.  2014: Plumes, entrainment and B.R. Morton.   Aust. Met. Oceanog. J., 64, 5-10.


143. BAINES, P.G. and HENLEY, B. J. 2014:  The effect of global dynamical factors on the interannual variability of land-based rainfall.  In Dynamics and Predictability of large-scale high-impact Weather and Climate Events, J. Li, R. Swinbank, H. Volkert and R. Grotjahn editors, Cambridge University Press.


142. BAINES, P.G. and SACKS, S. 2014  Atmospheric internal waves generated by explosive volcanic eruptions.  In The Eruption of Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat from 2000 to 2010, G. Wadge and B. Voight editors,   , Geological Society, London, Memoirs 2014, v.39; p153-168.


141. BAINES P.G , 2013 Non-Rotating Gravity Currents, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Elsevier. 11-Sep-13 doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.04243-3.


140. BAINES, P.G.  2013: The dynamics of intrusions into a density-stratified  crossflow.  Physics of Fluids 25, 076601, 1-30.

139. BAINES P.G. 2013: Stratified Hydraulics. Handbook of Environmental Fluid Dynamics (Ed. H.J.S. Fernando), Vol.1,  Chapter 22, Taylor & Francis, pp.273-284.

138. PRENTICE, I.C., BAINES, P.G., SCHOLZE, M. and WOOSTER, M.J. 2012 Fundamentals of climate change science.  Chapter 2 of Understanding the Earth System – Global Change Science for Application.  S.E. Cornell, I.C. Prentice, J.I House and C.J. Downy editors, Cambridge University Press, 267 pp.

135. BAINES, P.G.2009: A Model for the Structure of the Antarctic Slope Front. Deep-Sea Research II, 56, 859-873.

134. BAINES, P.G.2008: Mixing in downslope flows in the ocean - plumes versus gravity currents. Atmosphere-Ocean , 46(4), 405-419, doi:10.3137/AO925.2008 pdf

133. BAINES, P.G. JONES, M.J. and SPARKS S.J. 2008: The variation of large-magnitude volcanic ash cloud formation with source latitude. J. Geophys. Res.., 113, D21204, doi:10.1029/2007JD009568.

132. BAINES, P.G. 2008: Classics in Physical Geography revisited. Lorenz, E.N. 1963: Deterministic Non-periodic Flow. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 20, 130-141. Prog. Physical Geog. 32(4), 475-480.

131. PARKER, D., C. FOLLAND, A. SCAIFE, J. KNIGHT, A. COLMAN, P.G. BAINES and B. DONG, 2007: Decadal to multidecadal variability and the climate change background. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D18115, doi:10.1029/2007JD008411.

130. BAINES, P.G. 2007 Internal tide generation by seamounts. Deep-Sea Research Part I, 54 (9), p.1486-1508, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2007.05.009. pdf

129. BAINES, P.G. and C.K. FOLLAND, 2007 Evidence for a Rapid Global Climate Shift across the Late 1960s, J. Climate, 20, 2721-2744, doi:10.1175/JCL14177.1. pdf

The significance of this paper, with others, is discussed by Richard A. Kerr in Science, 10th August 2007, 317, 746-7: Humans and Nature Duel Over the Next Decade's Climate.

126. BAINES, P.G. 2006: The zonal structure of the Hadley circulation. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 23, 869-883. pdf

125. BAINES, P.G. 2006: Coastal and Regional Currents of Antarctica. In: Encyclopedia of the Antarctic, 2 vols., ed. Beau Riffenburgh. New York: Routledge, 269-272. pdf

124. BAINES, P.G. 2006: The late 1960s climate shift and its influence on the Southern Hemisphere. 8th International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography, Foz do Iguacu.

123. BAINES, P. G., and R. S. J. SPARKS 2005, Dynamics of giant volcanic ash clouds from supervolcanic eruptions, Geophys Res. Lett., 32, L24808, doi:10.1029/2005GL024597. pdf

121. BAINES, P.G. 2005 : Mixing regimes for the flow of dense fluid down slopes into stratified environments. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 538, 245-267. pdf

120. BAINES, P.G. 2005 : Long-term variations in winter rainfall of southwest Australia and the African monsoon. Australian Meteorological Magazine, 54, 91-102. pdf

119. BAINES, P.G., BOYER, D.L. and XIE, B. 2005 : Laboratory simulations of coastally trapped waves with rotation, topography and stratification. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, 39, 153-173. pdf

118. SMIRNOV, S.A, BAINES, P.G., BOYER, D.L., SRDIC-MITROVIC, A.N., and VOROPAYEV, S.I. 2005 : Long-time evolution of linearly stratified spin-up flows in axi-symmetric geometries. Physics of Fluids, 17, 016601, 13 pp. pdf

117. BAINES, P.G. and MURRAY, D.L. 2003 : Airflow over Cape Grim – a modelling study for optimum observation sites. Baseline Atmospheric (Australia) 1999-2000, 13-17..

116. BAINES, P.G. and WHITEHEAD, J.A. 2003 : On multiple states in single-layer flows. Phys. Fluids, 15, 298-307. pdf

114. BAINES, P.G. 2002 : Two-dimensional plumes in stratified environments. J. Fluid Mech., 471, 315-337. pdf

110. BAINES, P.G. 2001 : Mixing in flows down gentle slopes into stratified environments. J. Fluid Mech., 443, 237-270. pdf

109. CAI, W. and BAINES, P.G. 2001 : Forcing of the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave by El Niño – Southern Oscillation teleconnections. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 9019-9038. pdf

108. PRATA, A.J., BAINES, P.G. and TILDESLEY, P.C. 2001 : Satellite observations of concentric ring clouds west of Australia. Int. J. Remote Sensing, 22, 2847-2852. pdf

106. BAINES, P.G. 2001 : Downslope flows into rotating and stratified environments. In: Particulate gravity currents, B. C. Kneller, W. D. McCaffrey, and J. Peakall (editors), Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists 31, Oxford: Blackwell Science, 113-120.

103. BAINES, P.G. and MILES, J.W. 2000 : On topographic coupling of surface and internal tides. Deep-Sea Res., 47, 2395-2403.

101. LANE-SERFF, G.F. and BAINES, P.G. 2000 : Eddy formation by overflows in stratified water. J. Phys. Oceanog., 30, 327-337.

98. CAI, W., BAINES, P.G. and GORDON, H.B. 1999 : Southern mid-to-high latitude variability, a zonal wave-number three pattern, and the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave in the CSIRO coupled model. J. Climate, 12, 3087-3104.

92. BAINES, P.G. 1998 : Stratified flow past complex terrain, and the parametrisation of sub-grid-scale orographic effects. In Proceedings of ECMWF Workshop on Orography, 10-12 Nov. 1997, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, U.K., 51-66.

91. LANE-SERFF, G.F. & BAINES, P.G. 1998 : Eddy formation by dense flows on slopes in a rotating fluid. J.Fluid Mech., 363, 229-252. pdf

89. BAINES, P.G. and CONDIE, S. 1998 : Observations and modelling of Antarctic downslope flows: a review. Ocean, Ice and Atmosphere: Interactions at the Antarctic Continental Margin, AGU Antarctic Research Series Vol. 75, S.S. Jacobs & R. Weiss editors, 29-49. pdf

87. BAINES, P.G., 1998 : Topographic Effects in Stratified Flows. Cambridge University Press, 482 pp (updated paperback edition).

86. BAINES, P.G. and McINNES, K. 1997 : The Southerly Buster. In Windows on Meteorology – An Australian Perspective, E.K. Webb, ed., CSIRO Australia, 246-252. Also in The Marine Observer (1999), 344, 87-93, UKMO, Bracknell, U.K..

85. BAINES, P.G. 1997 : Some oceanographic inferences from coarse-resolution ocean and climate models. International WOCE Newsletter No. 26, 3-5.

83. BAINES, P.G. 1997: A fractal world of cloistered waves. Nature 388, 518-9. pdf

82. CAI, W. and BAINES, P.G. 1996 : Interactions between thermohaline and wind-driven circulations and their relevance to the dynamics of the Antarctic circumpolar current in a coarse resolution global OGCM. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14,073-14,093. pdf

81. BAINES, P.G. and HUGHES, R.L. 1996 : Western boundary current separation — inferences from a laboratory experiment. J. Phys. Oceanog. 26, 2576-2588

80. BAINES, P.G., MAJUMDAR, S. and MITSUDERA, H., 1996 : The mechanics of the Tollmien-Schlichting wave. J. Fluid Mech. 312, 107-124. pdf

78. BAINES, P.G. and MURRAY, D. 1995 : Topographic influence on the pattern of flow through Bass Strait. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 46, 763-767. pdf

77. BAINES, P.G., 1995 : Topographic Effects in Stratified Flows. Cambridge University Press, 482 pp.

76. BAINES, P.G. and MITSUDERA, H., 1994 : On the mechanism of shear-flow instabilities. J. Fluid Mech. 276, 327-342. pdf

75. BAINES, P.G. and MURRAY, D., 1994 : Modelling of the air flow over Cape Grim. Baseline (Baseline Atmospheric Programme Australia, 1991) 20-24.

71. BAINES, P.G. and SMITH, R.B., 1993 : Upstream stagnation points in stratified flow past obstacles. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 18, 105-113. pdf

68. BAINES, P.G., HUBBERT, G.D., and POWER, S., 1991 : Fluid transport through Bass Strait. Cont. Shelf Res., 11, 269-293. pdf

For a complete list of PGB's publications, click here.

Last update: 27th November 2017